THE distances quoted in this chapter are calculated from
London unless otherwise stated. For the purpose of adjust-
ing differences for other ports, the difference from London
to Liverpool is 150 miles and Northern Ports 250 miles.
Denmark. Chief trade: farm products; good discharge; charges
moderate; water 25 ft.; 560 miles Leith.
Egypt* Imports: fuel for bunkers; exports: cotton, cotton-seed,
oil cakes, beans, onions, etc.; deep water; charges cheap; average
1,000 tons daily; 3,100 miles London.
Algeria. Imports: fuel (bunkers); exports: wine, mineral ores
and cork; loading average 600-700 tons daily, ore 2,000 tons;
1,720 miles London.
Chile. Open roadstead and artificial harbour; imports: coal;
exports: nitrate of soda, copper ore, minerals; discharge in open
roadstead is by lighter which is affected on surf days, or alongside
quay in inner harbour: charges are heavy; 6,900 miles London.
Belgium. Imports: general cargo; exports: iron, general, cement
and bricks; good facilities; grain elevators, etc.; railways from all
Europe connect with docks; charges cheap; 430 miles lieith.
Russia. Trades: grain, timber, and wood pulp; has a bar-draft
24 ft.; quick facilities; 1,800 miles Leith.
United States of America. Exports: grain, timber, coal; has ele-
vators and good equipment; charges moderate; wharfage free; port
charges expensive, but turnabout is quick; 3,500 miles London.
Spain* Imports: coal, cotton, grain ; exports: general cargo; deep
water; charges dear; turnabout slow; 1,800 miles Liverpool.
India. Imports: coal, salt, petroleum, and general cargo; exports:
cotton, oilcakes, seeds, jute, and rice; aSft-3oft; pilotage is heavy;
charges are cheap; conditions are good with moderate speed; 6,290